Pathogenicity of human antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein
Ann Neurol. 2018 Aug;84(2):315-328.
Franziska S. Thaler
Lisa Ann Gerdes
|Type of Publication:||Journal Article|
Objective: Autoantibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) occur in a proportion of patients with inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We analyzed their pathogenic activity by affinity-purifying these antibodies (Abs) from patients and transferring them to experimental animals.
Methods: Patients with Abs to MOG were identified by cell-based assay. We determined the cross-reactivity to rodent MOG and the recognized MOG epitopes. We produced the correctly folded extracellular domain of MOG and affinitypurified MOG-specific Abs from the blood of patients. These purified Abs were used to stain CNS tissue and transferred in 2 models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Animals were analyzed histopathologically.
Results: We identified 17 patients with MOG Abs from our outpatient clinic and selected 2 with a cross-reactivity to rodent MOG; both had recurrent optic neuritis. Affinity-purified Abs recognized MOG on transfected cells and stained myelin in tissue sections. The Abs from the 2 patients recognized different epitopes on MOG, the CC0 and the FG loop. In both patients, these Abs persisted during our observation period of 2 to 3 years. The anti-MOG Abs from both patients were pathogenic upon intrathecal injection in 2 different rat models. Together with cognate MOG-specific T cells, these Abs enhanced T-cell infiltration; together with myelin basic protein–specific T cells, they induced demyelination associated with deposition of C9neo, resembling a multiple sclerosis type II pathology.
Interpretation: MOG-specific Abs affinity purified from patients with inflammatory demyelinating disease induce pathological changes in vivo upon cotransfer with myelin-reactive T cells, suggesting that these Abs are similarly pathogenic in patients.