Presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase on plasma membrane and endosomes is functionally distinct
Biochemistry 45(15): 4907-14
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The presenilin (PS)/gamma-secretase complex, which contains not only PS but also Aph-1, PEN-2, and nicastrin, mediates proteolysis of the transmembrane domain of beta-amyloid protein precursor (betaAPP). Intramembrane proteolysis occurs at the interface between the membrane and cytosol (epsilon-site) and near the middle of the transmembrane domain (gamma-site), generating the betaAPP intracellular domain (AICD) and Alzheimer disease-associated Abeta, respectively. Both cleavage sites exhibit some diversity. Changes in the precision of gamma-cleavage, which potentially results in secretion of pathogenic Abeta42, have been intensively studied, while those of epsilon-cleavage have not. Although a number of PS-associated factors have been identified, it is unclear whether any of them physiologically regulate the precision of cleavage by PS/gamma-secretase. Moreover, there is currently no clear evidence of whether PS/gamma-secretase function differs according to the subcellular site. Here, we show that endocytosis affects the precision of PS-dependent epsilon-cleavage in cell culture. Relative production of longer AICDepsilon49 increases on the plasma membrane, whereas that of shorter AICDepsilon51 increases on endosomes; however, this occurs without a concomitant major change in the precision of cleavage at gamma-sites. Moreover, very similar changes in the precision of epsilon-cleavage are induced by alteration of the pH. Our findings demonstrate that the precision of epsilon-cleavage by PS/gamma-secretase changes depending upon the conditions and the subcellular location. These results suggest that the precision of cleavage by the PS/gamma-secretase complex may be physiologically regulated by the subcellular location and conditions.