The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 differentially affects proteolytic processing of mutant and wild-type beta-amyloid precursor protein
J Biol Chem 270(11): 6186-92
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We analyzed the effect of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (bafA1) on the processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP). In kidney 293 cells stably transfected with the wild-type beta APP cDNA, bafA1 caused a stabilization of mature beta APP and its 10-kDa COOH-terminal fragment. Moreover, it caused a 2-3-fold increase in secretion of soluble APP and amyloid-beta protein (A beta). Interestingly, bafA1 treatment of cells transfected with a mutant beta APP isoform that occurs in a Swedish kindred with familial Alzheimer's disease resulted in a decrease of A beta production and no increase of soluble APP secretion. Identical results were obtained when the effect of bafA1 was analyzed on fibroblasts derived from affected versus unaffected members of the Swedish family. These data demonstrate a differential effect of bafA1 on the production of A beta derived from wild-type or Swedish mutant beta APP. Radiosequencing of A beta derived from bafA1-treated cells expressing wild-type beta APP revealed a marked increase of A beta peptides starting at amino acids phenylalanine 4 and valine -3 and a relative decrease of A beta molecules beginning at the typical NH2 terminus of aspartate 1. Cells transfected with the Swedish mutation and treated with bafA1 did not produce these alternative A beta peptides, so that bafA1 treatment resulted in a decrease of A beta starting at aspartate 1. Our data indicate that multiple proteases are able to cleave A beta at or near its NH2 terminus. Inhibition of the protease cleaving at aspartate 1 by bafA1 and perhaps other similar agents can result in an increase of alternatively cleaved peptides.